You can run the ‘ANALYZE INDEX VALIDATE STRUCTURE’ command on the affected indexes – each invocation of this command creates a single row in the INDEX_STATS view. This row is overwritten by the next ANALYZE INDEX command, so copy the contents of the view into a local table after each ANALYZE. The ‘badness’ of the index can then be judged by the ratio of ‘DEL_LF_ROWS’ to ‘LF_ROWS’.
WHERE CURRENT OF clause in an UPDATE,DELETE statement refers to the latest row fetched from a cursor. Database Triggers
User_objects, User_Source and User_error.
There are two types of cursors, Implicit Cursor and Explicit Cursor. PL/SQL uses Implicit Cursors for queries. User defined cursors are called Explicit Cursors. They can be declared and used.
The two parts of package are PACKAGE SPECIFICATION & PACKAGE BODY. Package Specification contains declarations that are global to the packages and local to the schema. Package Body contains actual procedures and local declaration of the procedures and cursor declarations.
The table columns are referred as OLD.column_name and NEW.column_name.
For triggers related to INSERT only NEW.column_name values only available.
For triggers related to UPDATE only OLD.column_name NEW.column_name values only available.
For triggers related to DELETE only OLD.column_name values only available.
Fine Grained Auditing (DBMS_FGA) allows auditing records to be generated when certain rows are selected from a table. A list of defined policies can be obtained from DBA_AUDIT_POLICIES. Audit records are stored in DBA_FGA_AUDIT_TRAIL. Look at this example:
o Add policy on table with autiting condition…
execute dbms_fga.add_policy(‘HR’, ‘EMP’, ‘policy1’, ‘deptno > 10’);
o Must ANALYZE, this feature works with CBO (Cost Based Optimizer)
analyze table EMP compute statistics;
select * from EMP where c1 = 11; — Will trigger auditing
select * from EMP where c1 = 09; — No auditing
o Now we can see the statments that triggered the auditing condition…
select sqltext from sys.fga_log$;
delete from sys.fga_log$;
The PRAGMA EXECPTION_INIT tells the complier to associate an exception with an oracle error. To get an error message of a specific oracle error. e.g. PRAGMA EXCEPTION_INIT (exception name, oracle error number)
Oracle 8i introduced the notion of a Virtual Private Database (VPD). A VPD offers Fine-Grained Access Control (FGAC) for secure separation of data. This ensures that users only have access to data that pertains to them. Using this option, one could even store multiple companies’ data within the same schema, without them knowing about it. VPD configuration is done via the DBMS_RLS (Row Level Security) package. Select from SYS.V$VPD_POLICY to see existing VPD configuration.
Raise_application_error is a procedure of package DBMS_STANDARD which allows to issue an user_defined error messages from stored sub-program or database trigger.
Oracle Label Security (formerly called Trusted Oracle MLS RDBMS) uses the VPD (Virtual Private Database) feature of Oracle8i to implement row level security. Access to rows are restricted according to a user’s security sensitivity tag or label. Oracle Label Security is configured, controlled and managed from the Policy Manager, an Enterprise Manager-based GUI utility.
PROCEDURE name (parameter list…..)
local variable declarations
OEM is a set of systems management tools provided by Oracle Corporation for managing the Oracle environment. It provides tools to monitor the Oracle environment and automate tasks (both one-time and repetitive in nature) to take database administration a step closer to “Lights Out” management.
Oracle Enterprise Manager (OEM) has the following components:
. Management Server (OMS): Middle tier server that handles communication with the intelligent agents. The OEM Console connects to the management server to monitor and configure the Oracle enterprise.
. Console: This is a graphical interface from where one can schedule jobs, events, and monitor the database. The console can be opened from a Windows workstation, Unix XTerm (oemapp command) or Web browser session (oem_webstage).
. Intelligent Agent (OIA): The OIA runs on the target database and takes care of the execution of jobs and events scheduled through the Console.
Mutation of table occurs.
It is not possible. As triggers are defined for each table, if you use COMMIT of ROLLBACK in a trigger, it affects logical transaction processing.
Insert Update Delete
Before Row o.k. o.k. o.k.
After Row o.k. o.k. o.k.
Before Statement o.k. o.k. o.k.
After Statement o.k. o.k. o.k.
If FOR EACH ROW clause is specified, then the trigger for each Row affected by the statement.
If WHEN clause is specified, the trigger fires according to the returned Boolean value.
In the standard package.
Procedures, Functions & Packages ;
I. done using Database triggers.
ii. done using Integarity Constraints.?
I & ii.
FUNCTION name (argument list …..) Return datatype is
local variable declarations
Function is called as part of an expression.
sal := calculate_sal (‘a822’);
procedure is called as a PL/SQL statement
Extensibility,Modularity, Reusability, Maintainability and one time compilation.
Exception is the error handling part of PL/SQL block. The types are Predefined and user defined. Some of Predefined exceptions are.
DECLARE CURSOR name, OPEN cursor name, FETCH cursor name INTO or Record types, CLOSE cursor name.
e.g.. FOR emp_rec IN C1 LOOP
salary_total := salary_total +emp_rec sal;
30. What will happen after commit statement ?
Cursor C1 is
ename from emp;
open C1; loop
Fetch C1 into
The cursor having query as SELECT …. FOR UPDATE gets closed after COMMIT/ROLLBACK.
The cursor having query as SELECT…. does not get closed even after COMMIT/ROLLBACK.
31. How packaged procedures and functions are called from the following?
a. Stored procedure or anonymous block
b. an application program such a PRC *C, PRO* COBOL
c. SQL *PLUS??
PACKAGE NAME.PROCEDURE NAME (parameters);
variable := PACKAGE NAME.FUNCTION NAME (arguments);
EXEC SQL EXECUTE
PACKAGE NAME.PROCEDURE NAME (parameters)
variable := PACKAGE NAME.FUNCTION NAME (arguments);
c. EXECUTE PACKAGE NAME.PROCEDURE if the procedures does not have any out/in-out parameters. A function can not be called.
32. What is a stored procedure ?
A stored procedure is a sequence of statements that perform specific function.
33. What are the components of a PL/SQL block ?
A set of related declarations and procedural statements is called block.
34. What is difference between a PROCEDURE & FUNCTION?
A FUNCTION is always returns a value using the return statement.
A PROCEDURE may return one or more values through parameters or may not return at all.
35. What is difference between a Cursor declared in a procedure and Cursor declared in a package specification?
A cursor declared in a package specification is global and can be accessed by other procedures or procedures in a package.
A cursor declared in a procedure is local to the procedure that can not be accessed by other procedures.
36. What are the cursor attributes used in PL/SQL?
%ISOPEN – to check whether cursor is open or not
% ROWCOUNT – number of rows fetched/updated/deleted.
% FOUND – to check whether cursor has fetched any row. True if rows are fetched.
% NOT FOUND – to check whether cursor has fetched any row. True if no rows are featched.
These attributes are proceeded with SQL for Implicit Cursors and with Cursor name for Explicit Cursors.
37. What are % TYPE and % ROWTYPE ? What are the advantages of using these over datatypes?
% TYPE provides the data type of a variable or a database column to that variable.
% ROWTYPE provides the record type that represents a entire row of a table or view or columns selected in the cursor.
The advantages are :
I. Need not know about variable’s data type
ii. If the database definition of a column in a table changes, the data type of a variable changes accordingly.
38. What is difference between % ROWTYPE and TYPE RECORD?
% ROWTYPE is to be used whenever query returns a entire row of a table or view.
TYPE rec RECORD is to be used whenever query returns columns of different table or views and variables.
E.g. TYPE r_emp is RECORD (eno emp.empno% type,ename emp ename %type );
e_rec emp% ROWTYPE
cursor c1 is select empno,deptno from emp;
e_rec c1 %ROWTYPE.
39. What are the different types of PL/SQL program units that can be defined and stored in ORACLE database ?
Procedures and Functions,Packages and Database Triggers.
40. What are the advantages of having a Package ?
Increased functionality (for example,global package variables can be declared and used by any proecdure in the package) and performance (for example all objects of the package are parsed compiled, and loaded into memory once)
41. What are the uses of Database Trigger ?
Database triggers can be used to automatic data generation, audit data modifications, enforce complex Integrity constraints, and customize complex security authorizations.
42. What is a Procedure?
A Procedure consist of a set of SQL and PL/SQL statements that are grouped together as a unit to solve a specific problem or perform a set of related tasks.
43. What is a Package ?
A Package is a collection of related procedures, functions, variables and other package constructs together as a unit in the database.
44. What is difference between Procedures and Functions ?
A Function returns a value to the caller where as a Procedure does not.
45. What is Database Trigger ?
A Database Trigger is procedure (set of SQL and PL/SQL statements) that is automatically executed as a result of an insert in, update to, or delete from a table.
46. Can the default values be assigned to actual parameters?
47. Can a primary key contain more than one columns?
48. What is an UTL_FILE.What are different procedures and functions associated with it?
UTL_FILE is a package that adds the ability to read and write to operating system files. Procedures associated with it are FCLOSE, FCLOSE_ALL and 5 procedures to output data to a file PUT, PUT_LINE, NEW_LINE, PUTF, FFLUSH.PUT, FFLUSH.PUT_LINE,FFLUSH.NEW_LINE. Functions associated with it are FOPEN, ISOPEN.
49. What are ORACLE PRECOMPILERS?
Using ORACLE PRECOMPILERS, SQL statements and PL/SQL blocks can be contained inside 3GL programs written in C,C++,COBOL,PASCAL, FORTRAN,PL/1 AND ADA. The Precompilers are known as Pro*C,Pro*Cobol,… This form of PL/SQL is known as embedded pl/sql,the language in which pl/sql is embedded is known as the host language. The prcompiler translates the embedded SQL and pl/sql statements into calls to the precompiler runtime library. The output must be compiled and linked with this library to creator an executable.
50. Differentiate between TRUNCATE and DELETE?
TRUNCATE deletes much faster than DELETE
It is a DDL statement
It is a DML statement
It is a one way trip, cannot ROLLBACK
One can Rollback
Doesn’t have selective features (where clause)
Doesn’t fire database triggers
It requires disabling of referential constraints.
51. What is difference between a formal and an actual parameter?
The variables declared in the procedure and which are passed, as arguments are called actual, the parameters in the procedure declaration. Actual parameters contain the values that are passed to a procedure and receive results. Formal parameters are the placeholders for the values of actual parameters
52. What should be the return type for a cursor variable. Can we use a scalar data type as return type?
The return type for a cursor must be a record type.It can be declared explicitly as a user-defined or %ROWTYPE can be used. eg TYPE t_studentsref IS REF CURSOR RETURN students%ROWTYPE
53, What are different Oracle database objects?
- TABLESPACES etc
54. What is difference between SUBSTR and INSTR?
SUBSTR returns a specified portion of a string eg SUBSTR(‘BCDEF’,4) output BCDE INSTR provides character position in which a pattern is found in a string. eg INSTR(‘ABC-DC-F’,’-‘,2) output 7 (2nd occurence of ‘-‘)
55. Display the number value in Words?
SQL> select sal, (to_char(to_date(sal,’j’), ‘jsp’)) from emp;
the output like,
800 eight hundred
1600 one thousand six hundred
1250 one thousand two hundred fifty
If you want to add some text like, Rs. Three Thousand only.
SQL> select sal “Salary “,(‘ Rs. ‘|| (to_char(to_date(sal,’j’), ‘Jsp’))|| ‘ only.’)) “Sal in Words” from emp
Salary Sal in Words
800 Rs. Eight Hundred only.
1600 Rs. One Thousand Six Hundred only.
1250 Rs. One Thousand Two Hundred Fifty only.
56. What is difference between SQL and SQL*PLUS?
SQL*PLUS is a command line tool where as SQL and PL/SQL language interface and reporting tool. Its a command line tool that allows user to type SQL commands to be executed directly against an Oracle database. SQL is a language used to query the relational database(DML,DCL,DDL). SQL*PLUS commands are used to format query result, Set options, Edit SQL commands and PL/SQL.
57. What are various joins used while writing SUBQUERIES?
Self join-Its a join foreign key of a table references the same table. Outer Join–Its a join condition used where One can query all the rows of one of the tables in the join condition even though they don’t satisfy the join condition.
Equi-join–Its a join condition that retrieves rows from one or more tables in which one or more columns in one table are equal to one or more columns in the second table.
58. What a SELECT FOR UPDATE cursor represent.?
The processing done in a fetch loop modifies the rows that have been retrieved by the cursor. A convenient way of modifying the rows is done by a method with two parts: the FOR UPDATE clause in the cursor declaration, WHERE CURRENT OF CLAUSE in an UPDATE or declaration statement.
59. What are various privileges that a user can grant to another user?
60. Display the records between two range?
select rownum, empno, ename from emp where rowid in (select rowid from emp where rownum <=&upto minus select rowid from emp where rownum<&Start);
61. minvalue.sql Select the Nth lowest value from a table?
select level, min(‘col_name’) from my_table where level = ‘&n’ connect by prior (‘col_name’) < ‘col_name’) group by level;
Given a table called emp with the following columns:
— id number
— name varchar2(20)
— sal number
— For the second lowest salary:
— select level, min(sal) from emp
— where level=2
— connect by prior sal < sal
— group by level
62. What is difference between Rename and Alias?
Rename is a permanent name given to a table or column whereas Alias is a temporary name given to a table or column which do not exist once the SQL statement is executed.
63. Difference between an implicit & an explicit cursor.?
only one row. However,queries that return more than one row you must declare an explicit cursor or use a cursor FOR loop. Explicit cursor is a cursor in which the cursor name is explicitly assigned to a SELECT statement via the CURSOR…IS statement. An implicit cursor is used for all SQL statements Declare, Open, Fetch, Close. An explicit cursors are used to process multirow SELECT statements An implicit cursor is used to process INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE and single row SELECT. .INTO statements.
64. What is a OUTER JOIN?
Outer Join–Its a join condition used where you can query all the rows of one of the tables in the join condition even though they don’t satisfy the join condition.
65. What is a cursor?
Oracle uses work area to execute SQL statements and store processing information PL/SQL construct called a cursor lets you name a work area and access its stored information A cursor is a mechanism used to fetch more than one row in a Pl/SQl block.
66. What is the purpose of a cluster?
Oracle does not allow a user to specifically locate tables, since that is a part of the function of the RDBMS. However, for the purpose of increasing performance, oracle allows a developer to create a CLUSTER. A CLUSTER provides a means for storing data from different tables together for faster retrieval than if the table placement were left to the RDBMS.
67. What is OCI. What are its uses?
Oracle Call Interface is a method of accessing database from a 3GL program. Uses–No precompiler is required,PL/SQL blocks are executed like other DML statements.
The OCI library provides
–functions to parse SQL statements
–bind input variables
–bind output variables
–fetch the results
68. How you open and close a cursor variable. Why it is required?
OPEN cursor variable FOR SELECT…Statement
CLOSE cursor variable In order to associate a cursor variable with a particular SELECT statement OPEN syntax is used. In order to free the resources used for the query CLOSE statement is used.
69. Display Odd/ Even number of records?
Odd number of records:
select * from emp where (rowid,1) in (select rowid, mod(rownum,2) from emp);
Even number of records:
select * from emp where (rowid,0) in (select rowid, mod(rownum,2) from emp)
70. What are various constraints used in SQL?
- NOT NULL
71. Can cursor variables be stored in PL/SQL tables. If yes how. If not why?
No, a cursor variable points a row which cannot be stored in a two-dimensional PL/SQL table.
72. Difference between NO DATA FOUND and %NOTFOUND?
NO DATA FOUND is an exception raised only for the SELECT….INTO statements when the where clause of the querydoes not match any rows. When the where clause of the explicit cursor does not match any rows the %NOTFOUND attribute is set to TRUE instead.
73. Can you use a commit statement within a database trigger?
74. What WHERE CURRENT OF clause does in a cursor?
SELECT num_credits INTO v_numcredits FROM classes
WHERE dept=123 and course=101;
WHERE CURRENT OF X;
75. There is a string 120000 12 0 .125 , how you will find the position of the decimal place?
INSTR(‘120000 12 0 .125′,1,’.’)
76. What are different modes of parameters used in functions and procedures?
-IN -OUT -INOUT
77. How you were passing cursor variables in PL/SQL 2.2?
In PL/SQL 2.2 cursor variables cannot be declared in a package.This is because the storage for a cursor variable has to be allocated using Pro*C or OCI with version 2.2, the only means of passing a cursor variable to a PL/SQL block is via bind variable or a procedure parameter.
78. When do you use WHERE clause and when do you use HAVING clause?
HAVING clause is used when you want to specify a condition for a group function and it is written after GROUP BY clause. The WHERE clause is used when you want to specify a condition for columns, single row functions except group functions and it is written before GROUP BY clause if it is used.
79. Which is more faster – IN or EXISTS?
EXISTS is more faster than IN because EXISTS returns a Boolean value whereas IN returns a value.
80. What is syntax for dropping a procedure and a function .Are these operations possible?
Drop Procedure procedure_name
Drop Function function_name
81. How will you delete duplicating rows from a base table?
delete from table_name where rowid not in (select max(rowid) from table group by duplicate_values_field_name); or delete duplicate_values_field_name dv from table_name ta where rowid <(select min(rowid) from table_name tb where ta.dv=tb.dv);
82. Difference between database triggers and form triggers?
-Data base trigger(DBT) fires when a DML operation is performed on a data base table. Form trigger(FT) Fires when user presses a key or navigates between fields on the screen
-Can be row level or statement level No distinction between row level and statement level.
-Can manipulate data stored in Oracle tables via SQL Can manipulate data in Oracle tables as well as variables in forms.
-Can be fired from any session executing the triggering DML statements. Can be fired only from the form that define the trigger.
-Can cause other database triggers to fire. Can cause other database triggers to fire, but not other form triggers.
83. What is a cursor for loop?
Cursor For Loop is a loop where oracle implicitly declares a loop variable, the loop index that of the same record type as the cursor’s record.
84. How you will avoid duplicating records in a query?
By using DISTINCT
85. What is a view ?
A view is stored procedure based on one or more tables, it’s a virtual table.
86. What is difference between UNIQUE and PRIMARY KEY constraints?
A table can have only one PRIMARY KEY whereas there can be any number of UNIQUE keys. The columns that compose PK are automatically define NOT NULL, whereas a column that compose a UNIQUE is not automatically defined to be mandatory must also specify the column is NOT NULL.
87. What is use of a cursor variable? How it is defined?
A cursor variable is associated with different statements at run time, which can hold different values at run time. Static cursors can only be associated with one run time query. A cursor variable is reference type (like a pointer in C).
Declaring a cursor variable:
TYPE type_name IS REF CURSOR RETURN return_type type_name is the name of the reference type,return_type is a record type indicating the types of the select list that will eventually be returned by the cursor variable.
88. How do you find the numbert of rows in a Table ?
A bad answer is count them (SELECT COUNT(*) FROM table_name)
A good answer is :-
‘By generating SQL to ANALYZE TABLE table_name COUNT STATISTICS by querying Oracle System Catalogues (e.g. USER_TABLES or ALL_TABLES).
The best answer is to refer to the utility which Oracle released which makes it unnecessary to do ANALYZE TABLE for each Table individually.
89. What is the maximum buffer size that can be specified using the DBMS_OUTPUT.ENABLE function?
90. What are cursor attributes?
%ROWCOUNT, %NOTFOUND, %FOUND, %ISOPEN
91. There is a % sign in one field of a column. What will be the query to find it?
Should be used before ‘%’.
92. What is ON DELETE CASCADE ?
When ON DELETE CASCADE is specified ORACLE maintains referential integrity by automatically removing dependent foreign key values if a referenced primary or unique key value is removed.
93. What is the fastest way of accessing a row in a table ?
94. What is difference between TRUNCATE & DELETE ?
TRUNCATE commits after deleting entire table i.e., can not be rolled back. Database triggers do not fire on TRUNCATEDELETE allows the filtered deletion. Deleted records can be rolled back or committed. Database triggers fire on DELETE.
95. What is a transaction ?
Transaction is logical unit between two commits and commit and rollback.
96. What are the advantages of VIEW ?
To protect some of the columns of a table from other users.To hide complexity of a query.To hide complexity of calculations.
97. How will you a activate/deactivate integrity constraints ?
The integrity constraints can be enabled or disabled by ALTER TABLE ENABLE constraint/DISABLE constraint.
98. Where the integrity constraints are stored in Data Dictionary ?
The integrity constraints are stored in USER_CONSTRAINTS.
99. What is the Subquery ?
Sub query is a query whose return values are used in filtering conditions of the main query.
100. How to access the current value and next value from a sequence ? Is it possible to access the current value in a session before accessing next value ?
Sequence name CURRVAL, Sequence name NEXTVAL.It is not possible. Only if you access next value in the session, current value can be accessed.
101. What are the usage of SAVEPOINTS ?value in a session before accessing next value ?
SAVEPOINTS are used to subdivide a transaction into smaller parts. It enables rolling back part of a transaction. Maximum of five save points are allowed.
102. What is ROWID ?in a session before accessing next value ?
ROWID is a pseudo column attached to each row of a table. It is 18 character long, blockno, rownumber are the components of ROWID.
103. Explain Connect by Prior ?in a session before accessing next value ?
Retrieves rows in hierarchical order.e.g. select empno, ename from emp where.
104. How many LONG columns are allowed in a table ? Is it possible to use LONG columns in WHERE clause or ORDER BY ?
Only one LONG columns is allowed. It is not possible to use LONG column in WHERE or ORDER BY clause.
105. What is Referential Integrity ?
Maintaining data integrity through a set of rules that restrict the values of one or more columns of the tables based on the values of primary key or unique key of the referenced table.
106. What is a join ? Explain the different types of joins ?
Join is a query which retrieves related columns or rows from multiple tables.Self Join – Joining the table with itself.Equi Join – Joining two tables by equating two common columns.Non-Equi Join – Joining two tables by equating two common columns.Outer Join – Joining two tables in such a way that query can also retrieve rows that do not have corresponding join value in the other table.
107. If an unique key constraint on DATE column is created, will it validate the rows that are inserted with SYSDATE ?
It won’t, Because SYSDATE format contains time attached with it.
108. What is an Integrity Constraint ?
Integrity constraint is a rule that restricts values to a column in a table.
109. What is CYCLE/NO CYCLE in a Sequence ?
CYCLE specifies that the sequence continues to generate values after reaching either maximum or minimum value. After pan ascending sequence reaches its maximum value, it generates its minimum value. After a descending sequence reaches its minimum, it generates its maximum.NO CYCLE specifies that the sequence cannot generate more values after reaching its maximum or minimum value.
110. What is correlated sub-query ?
Correlated sub query is a sub query which has reference to the main query.
111. What are the data types allowed in a table ?
CHAR,VARCHAR2,NUMBER,DATE,RAW,LONG and LONG RAW.
112. What is difference between CHAR and VARCHAR2 ? What is the maximum SIZE allowed for each type ?
CHAR pads blank spaces to the maximum length. VARCHAR2 does not pad blank spaces. For CHAR it is 255 and 2000 for VARCHAR2.
113. Can a view be updated/inserted/deleted? If Yes under what conditions ?
A View can be updated/deleted/inserted if it has only one base table if the view is based on columns from one or more tables then insert, update and delete is not possible.
114. maxvalue.sql Select the Nth Highest value from a table?
select level, max(‘col_name’) from my_table where level = ‘&n’ connect by prior (‘col_name’) > ‘col_name’) group by level;
Given a table called emp with the following columns:
— id number
— name varchar2(20)
— sal number
— For the second highest salary:
— select level, max(sal) from emp
— where level=2
— connect by prior sal > sal
— group by level
115. Find out nth highest salary from emp table?
SELECT DISTINCT (a.sal) FROM EMP A WHERE &N = (SELECT COUNT (DISTINCT (b.sal)) FROM EMP B WHERE a.sal<=b.sal);
Enter value for n: 2
116. Suppose a customer table is having different columns like customer no, payments.What will be the query to select top three max payments?
SELECT customer_no, payments from customer C1 WHERE 3<=(SELECT COUNT(*) from customer C2 WHERE C1.payment <= C2.payment)
117. How you will avoid your query from using indexes?
SELECT * FROM emp Where emp_no+’ ‘=12345;
i.e you have to concatenate the column name with space within codes in the where condition.
SELECT /*+ FULL(a) */ ename, emp_no from emp where emp_no=1234;
i.e using HINTS
118. How many types of Sql Statements are there in Oracle
There are basically 6 types of sql statments.They are
a) Data Definition Language(DDL) :: The DDL statements define and maintain objects and drop objects.
b) Data Manipulation Language(DML) :: The DML statements manipulate database data.
c) Transaction Control Statements :: Manage change by DML
d) Session Control :: Used to control the properties of current session enabling and disabling roles and changing .e.g. :: Alter Statements, Set Role
e) System Control Statements :: Change Properties of Oracle Instance .e.g.:: Alter System
f) Embedded Sql :: Incorporate DDL, DML and T.C.S in Programming Language.e.g:: Using the Sql Statements in languages such as ‘C’, Open, Fetch, execute and close
119. What is a Transaction in Oracle
A transaction is a Logical unit of work that compromises one or more SQL Statements executed by a single User. According to ANSI, a transaction begins with first executable statement and ends when it is explicitly committed or rolled back.
120. Key Words Used in Oracle
The Key words that are used in Oracle are ::
a) Committing :: A transaction is said to be committed when the transaction makes permanent changes resulting from the SQL statements.
b) Rollback :: A transaction that retracts any of the changes resulting from SQL statements in Transaction.
c) SavePoint :: For long transactions that contain many SQL statements, intermediate markers or savepoints are declared. Savepoints can be used to divide a transaction into smaller points.
d) Rolling Forward :: Process of applying redo log during recovery is called rolling forward.
e) Cursor :: A cursor is a handle ( name or a pointer) for the memory associated with a specific stamen. A cursor is basically an area allocated by Oracle for executing the Sql Statement. Oracle uses an implicit cursor statement for Single row query and Uses Explicit cursor for a multi row query.
f) System Global Area(SGA) :: The SGA is a shared memory region allocated by the Oracle that contains Data and control information for one Oracle Instance. It consists of Database Buffer Cache and Redo log Buffer.
g) Program Global Area (PGA) :: The PGA is a memory buffer that contains data and control information for server process.
g) Database Buffer Cache :: Database Buffer of SGA stores the most recently used blocks of database data. The set of database buffers in an instance is called Database Buffer Cache.
h) Redo log Buffer :: Redo log Buffer of SGA stores all the redo log entries.
i) Redo Log Files :: Redo log files are set of files that protect altered database data in memory that has not been written to Data Files. They are basically used for backup when a database crashes.
j) Process :: A Process is a ‘thread of control’ or mechanism in Operating System that executes series of steps.
121. What are Procedure, functions and Packages ?
Procedures and functions consist of set of PL/SQL statements that are grouped together as a unit to solve a specific problem or perform set of related tasks.
Procedures do not Return values while Functions return one One Value Packages :: Packages Provide a method of encapsulating and storing related procedures, functions, variables and other Package Contents
122. What are Database Triggers and Stored Procedures
Database Triggers :: Database Triggers are Procedures that are automatically executed as a result of insert in, update to, or delete from table.
Database triggers have the values old and new to denote the old value in the table before it is deleted and the new indicated the new value that will be used. DT are useful for implementing complex business rules which cannot be enforced using the integrity rules.We can have the trigger as Before trigger or After Trigger and at Statement or Row level. e.g:: operations insert,update ,delete 3 before ,after 3*2 A total of 6 combinatons
At statment level(once for the trigger) or row level( for every execution ) 6 * 2 A total of 12. Thus a total of 12 combinations are there and the restriction of usage of 12 triggers has been lifted from Oracle 7.3 Onwards.
Stored Procedures :: Stored Procedures are Procedures that are stored in Compiled form in the database.The advantage of using the stored procedures is that many users can use the same procedure in compiled and ready to use format.
123. How many Integrity Rules are there and what are they
There are Three Integrity Rules. They are as follows ::
a) Entity Integrity Rule :: The Entity Integrity Rule enforces that the Primary key cannot be Null
b) Foreign Key Integrity Rule :: The FKIR denotes that the relationship between the foreign key and the primary key has to be enforced.When there is data in Child Tables the Master tables cannot be deleted.
c) Business Integrity Rules :: The Third Intigrity rule is about the complex business processes which cannot be implemented by the above 2 rules.
124. What are the Various Master and Detail Relation ships.
The various Master and Detail Relationship are
a) NonIsolated :: The Master cannot be deleted when a child is exisiting
b) Isolated :: The Master can be deleted when the child is exisiting
c) Cascading :: The child gets deleted when the Master is deleted.
125. What are the Different Optimization Techniques
The Various Optimisation techniques are
a) Execute Plan :: we can see the plan of the query and change it accordingly based on the indexes
b) Optimizer_hint ::
Select /*+ First_Rows */ Deptno,Dname,Loc,Rowid from dept
where (Deptno > 25)
c) Optimize_Sql ::
By setting the Optimize_Sql = No, Oracle Forms assigns a single cursor for all SQL statements.This slow downs the processing because for evertime the SQL must be parsed whenver they are executed.
f45run module = my_firstform userid = scott/tiger optimize_sql = No
d) Optimize_Tp ::
By setting the Optimize_Tp= No, Oracle Forms assigns seperate cursor only for each query SELECT statement. All other SQL statements reuse the cursor.
f45run module = my_firstform userid = scott/tiger optimize_Tp = No
126. What is the difference between candidate key, unique key and primary key
Candidate keys are the columns in the table that could be the primary keys and the primary key is the key that has been selected to identify the rows. Unique key is also useful for identifying the distinct rows in the table.)
127. Deleting the Duplicate rows in the table
We can delete the duplicate rows in the table by using the Rowid